Cleo Project

Commemoration, memory making and identity in the 21st century

In view of recent transformations in European commemorative practices, the CLEO (Cultural Memory in Europe: Commemoration, memory making, and identity in the 21st century) project investigates practices of memory-making and identity in European spaces.

Historiography has used the term “post-heroic” to describe the changes in memory-making and commemoration that took place in Europe after WWII, which is manifested in the fact that public recognition is no longer to heroic deed, but to the victims of conflicts and wars. The project provides a historical perspective on different forms of commemoration in various parts of Europe over the past century.

Today, we will explore the ways through which certain figures or events have become major participants in cultural memory, and how it contributes to national and European identity projects. Using various sources, we will discuss the changing perception of the national heroes in Europe by examining representations, practices and discourses on heroism and victimhood. 

ERASMUS+ Programme Agreement number 2021-2-IS01-KA220-HED-000048645

For more information:

This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication [communication] reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.


  • The University of Akureyri (Háskólinn á Akureyri)
  • The University of Patras (Πανεπιστήμιο Πατρών)

  • Armes Progetti

  • The Catholic University of Louvain (UCLouvain)

  • The University of Belgrade (Универзитет у Београду)

  • Central European University
    (Kozep-Europai Egyetem, CEU, CEU PU)